Brinell Hardness Test

The Brinell hardness test consists in indenting the metal surface with a 10-mm diameter steel ball at a load of 3,000 kg.

For soft metals the load is reduced to 500 kg to avoid too deep an impression. For very hard metals Tungsten carbide ball can be used to minimize distortion of the indenter. The surface on which the indentation is made should be relatively smooth and free from dirt or scale. (more…)


Electric Arc Furnace


  • EAF is direct arc furnace.
  • Steelmaking temp is maintained by an electric arc struck between the graphite electrodes &the metallic charge.
  • The arc temperature is above 4000°C and is used to heat the bath by radiative heat transfer.
  • Only process wherein either oxidizing or reducing condition can be maintained as desired.
  • Different slag types can be carried out.
  • High cost of electrical energy makes this process costly.


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