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What is mean by free carbon and combined carbon in the gray cast iron?

What is mean by free carbon and combined carbon in the gray cast iron?

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Total time for solidification of a cubic casting of dimensions 5.0 cm×5.0 cm ×5.0cm is 1.6 min. A cylindrical riser with diameter to height ratio 0.5 is required so that the time for solidification of riser is 3.2 min. Applying ...Read more

Total time for solidification of a cubic casting of dimensions 5.0 cm×5.0 cm ×5.0cm is 1.6 min. A cylindrical riser with diameter to height ratio 0.5 is required so that the time for solidification of riser is 3.2 min. Applying Chvorinov’s law, the height of the riser (in cm) is _____ (answer up to two decimal places)

(Assume that exponent (n) in Chvorinov’s equation is 2)

Read lessAs shown in schematic below, an alloy is cast as a rectangular slab between two thick mould walls that differ in their thermal conductivities. Shrinkage defects are found at a distance L1 from Mould-1 with thermal conductivity 𝑘1 and distance ...Read more

As shown in schematic below, an alloy is cast as a rectangular slab between two thick mould walls that differ in their thermal conductivities. Shrinkage defects are found at a distance L1 from Mould-1 with thermal conductivity 𝑘_{1} and distance L2 from Mould-2 with thermal conductivity 𝑘_{2}. If the ratio L1**:**L2 = 3**:**2, and assuming 1-D heat transfer, the ratio (k1 ⁄𝑘2) is ________ (*to two decimal places*).

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In sand-mold casting of a metal, it takes 180 seconds for complete solidification of a 27 cm3 cube-shaped casting. All other parameters remaining constant, the total solidification time (in seconds, rounded off to one decimal place) for a cylinder-shaped [radius ...Read more

In sand-mold casting of a metal, it takes 180 seconds for complete solidification of a 27 cm^{3} cube-shaped casting. All other parameters remaining constant, the total solidification time (in seconds, rounded off to one decimal place) for a cylinder-shaped [radius = 1 cm and height = 6 cm] casting of the same metal, is _______.